Tag Archives: howto

How to dynamically pivot a SQL Server table using dynamic T-SQL

A dynamic pivot table means you do not need to define hard coded column names as a dynamic query will fetch the field values from a column and use them as the column names while pivoting the source table.

Sounds complicated?

It is!

Good thing there are some code examples below you can just steal and alter as you need.

The first example will just return as a SELECT, the second example will write the results to a global temp table called ##Result.

A use case for this might be a continuous requirement to pivot a table however the column name requirements keep changing as field values change.

Example 1: Return as SELECT

/*Mock Table*/
IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb.dbo.#Fruits', 'U') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #Fruits;

CREATE TABLE #Fruits (
	Fruit VARCHAR(255)
	,Quantity INT
	,DateOf DATETIME
	);

INSERT INTO #Fruits (
	Fruit
	,Quantity
	,DateOf
	)
VALUES 
('Apple', 10	,GETDATE())
,('Orange', 10	,GETDATE())
,('Banana', 10, GETDATE())
,('Apple', 11, DATEADD(DAY, - 1, GETDATE()))
,('Orange', 11, DATEADD(DAY, - 1, GETDATE()))
,('Banana', 11, DATEADD(DAY, - 1, GETDATE()))
,('Apple', 12, DATEADD(DAY, - 2, GETDATE()))
,('Orange', 12, DATEADD(DAY, - 2, GETDATE()))
,('Banana', 12, DATEADD(DAY, - 2, GETDATE()))
,('Apple', 13, DATEADD(DAY, - 3, GETDATE()))
,('Orange', 13, DATEADD(DAY, - 3, GETDATE()))
,('Banana', 13, DATEADD(DAY, - 3, GETDATE()));

/*Demo Mock table*/
SELECT *
FROM #Fruits;

/*Logic to dynamically pivot table*/
DECLARE @cols AS NVARCHAR(MAX)
	,@query AS NVARCHAR(MAX);

SELECT @cols = STUFF((
			SELECT DISTINCT QUOTENAME(f.[Fruit]) + ', '
			FROM #Fruits AS f
			FOR XML PATH('')
				,TYPE
			).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 1, '');

/*Add missing square bracket to start of string*/
SET @cols = '[' + @cols;
/*Remove last comma from string*/
SET @cols = SUBSTRING(@cols, 1, (LEN(@cols) - 1));
SET @query = 'SELECT [DateOf], ' + @cols + ' FROM 
             (
              SELECT *
			  FROM #Fruits
            ) x
            pivot 
            (
                min(Quantity)
                for [Fruit] in (' + @cols + ')
            ) p ORDER BY RIGHT([DateOf], 4) ASC
			,LEFT(RIGHT([DateOf], 7), 2) ASC
			,LEFT([DateOf], 2) ASC';

EXECUTE (@query);

DROP TABLE #Fruits;

Example 2: Write output to a table

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb.dbo.##Result', 'U') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE ##Result;
/*Mock Table*/
IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb.dbo.#Fruits', 'U') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #Fruits;

CREATE TABLE #Fruits (
	Fruit VARCHAR(255)
	,Quantity INT
	,DateOf DATETIME
	);

INSERT INTO #Fruits (
	Fruit
	,Quantity
	,DateOf
	)
VALUES 
('Apple', 10	,GETDATE())
,('Orange', 10	,GETDATE())
,('Banana', 10, GETDATE())
,('Apple', 11, DATEADD(DAY, - 1, GETDATE()))
,('Orange', 11, DATEADD(DAY, - 1, GETDATE()))
,('Banana', 11, DATEADD(DAY, - 1, GETDATE()))
,('Apple', 12, DATEADD(DAY, - 2, GETDATE()))
,('Orange', 12, DATEADD(DAY, - 2, GETDATE()))
,('Banana', 12, DATEADD(DAY, - 2, GETDATE()))
,('Apple', 13, DATEADD(DAY, - 3, GETDATE()))
,('Orange', 13, DATEADD(DAY, - 3, GETDATE()))
,('Banana', 13, DATEADD(DAY, - 3, GETDATE()));

/*Demo Mock table*/
SELECT *
FROM #Fruits;

/*Logic to dynamically pivot table*/
DECLARE @cols AS NVARCHAR(MAX)
	,@query AS NVARCHAR(MAX);

SELECT @cols = STUFF((
			SELECT DISTINCT QUOTENAME(f.[Fruit]) + ', '
			FROM #Fruits AS f
			FOR XML PATH('')
				,TYPE
			).value('.', 'NVARCHAR(MAX)'), 1, 1, '');

/*Add missing square bracket to start of string*/
SET @cols = '[' + @cols;
/*Remove last comma from string*/
SET @cols = SUBSTRING(@cols, 1, (LEN(@cols) - 1));
SET @query = 'SELECT [DateOf], ' + @cols + ' INTO ##Result FROM 
             (
              SELECT *
			  FROM #Fruits
            ) x
            pivot 
            (
                min(Quantity)
                for [Fruit] in (' + @cols + ')
            ) p ORDER BY RIGHT([DateOf], 4) ASC
			,LEFT(RIGHT([DateOf], 7), 2) ASC
			,LEFT([DateOf], 2) ASC';

EXECUTE (@query);

SELECT * FROM ##Result;

DROP TABLE ##Result;

DROP TABLE #Fruits;

How to create a Spark SQL table with a SELECT statement

The following is a code snippet that would create a table in a “sales” schema called customer.

If no reference to a schema is given the table will be created in the default Spark location.

CREATE TABLE sales.customer USING DELTA AS (SELECT 'John' AS fn, 'Smith' AS sn, 55 AS age)

How to run a PowerShell script

So you have a PowerShell script and you just want to run it without messing around with permissions, policies, signing it or any other crap. (Yes yes I know all those things are vital for system wide security but you’re in a hurry damn it!)

Right click PowerShell and run as administrator.


When the terminal is open run the following line:


Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned


When prompted type the letter A and press Enter (if applicable).


Run the below including “&” at start of line with reference to your script, i.e.


& “C:\YourTestDirectory\YourTestFile.ps1”

How to create a directory structure from file creation dates using PowerShell

Below is example PowerShell code to create a directory structure from file creation dates.

A use case for this code might be a need to organize a collection of files stored on an SFTP server or NAS. The code can be modified to loop through the files putting each one into sub directories corresponding to nested folders organized into Year\Month\Day folders.

To use the logic first create a test folder on your computer.
Then copy the logic below to a text file editor and find and replace the following with reference to your test folder location:

C:\YourTestDirectory

Then save the code below as a PowerShell file called “DirFromDate.ps1” into your test folder.

To then run the file open up PowerShell and paste the following line:

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

Hit return and then enter the letter A if requested.

Then enter the following replacing “YourTestDirectory” with your actual test directory location:

& “C:\YourTestDirectory\DirFromDate.ps1”

Hit return.

<#
.SYNOPSIS
   <A brief description of the script>
.DESCRIPTION
   <A detailed description of the script>
.PARAMETER <paramName>
   <Description of script parameter>
.EXAMPLE
   <An example of using the script>
#>

#FIND AND REPLACE THE FOLLOWING WITH A DIRECTORY
C:\YourTestDirectory

#How Run In Powershell
#Open Powershell terminal and run the folling line:
#Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned
#Type A and press Enter (if applicable).
#Run the below including "&" at start of line
#& "C:\YourTestDirectory\DirFromDate.ps1"

#VARIABLES
#Define folder variables
$workingFolder = "C:\YourTestDirectory\"
#Define file variable
$testFile = "\ThisIsATestFile.txt"
$testFile = $workingFolder + $testFile


###############################################
#(!!DO NOT ALTER SCRIPT PASSED THIS POINT!!)
###############################################
#Write variables to terminal
Write-Host "Filepath: $workingFolder";

#Create test File

New-Item $testFile

#Define source directory variable
$files = Get-ChildItem -Path $workingFolder 

#3 steps: move raw files to azure, zip file, move zipped file to azure
foreach ($file in $files)
{
		#FileName
		Write-Host "File: $file";
		#Get file creation date from file name
		$fileDate = $file.CreationTime.ToString("ddMMyyyy")
		#Get file creation date (last time data was written to file) from file name
		#$fileDate = $file.LastWriteTime.ToString("ddMMyyyy")
		Write-Host "Filedate: $fileDate";
		$fileDate = $fileDate.Substring($fileDate.Length - 4) + "\" + $fileDate.Substring(3, 2) + "\" + $fileDate.Substring(0, 2)
		Write-Host "Filedate: $fileDate";
		$DirectoryStructure = $workingFolder + "\" + $fileDate
		Write-Host "DirStructure: $DirectoryStructure";

}
md $DirectoryStructure

Move-Item -Path $testFile -Destination $DirectoryStructure

How to check SQL Server schema user permissions

The script below will, providing the login you are using has adequate permissions, return the schema permissions a user has.

Commented out at the end of the script are examples of the types of permission you can assign, again providing the login you are using has adequate permissions.

SELECT ClassDescription
	,StateDescription
	,PermissionName
	,SchemaName
	,UserName
FROM (
	SELECT class_desc AS ClassDescription
		,state_desc AS StateDescription
		,permission_name AS PermissionName
		,SCHEMA_NAME(major_id) AS SchemaName
		,USER_NAME(grantee_principal_id) AS UserName
	FROM sys.database_permissions AS PERM
	JOIN sys.database_principals AS Prin ON PERM.major_ID = Prin.principal_id
		AND class_desc = 'SCHEMA'
	) AS schemaPermissions
WHERE 1=1 
/*Uncomment below to check permissions on a specific schema and/or specific user*/
--	AND SchemaName = 'dbo'
--	AND UserName = 'SomeGuy'
ORDER BY UserName ASC
,SchemaName ASC
GO



/*
--Grant schema permission examples
GRANT SELECT ON SCHEMA::dbo TO SomeGuy;
GRANT UPDATE ON SCHEMA::dbo TO SomeGuy;
GRANT ALTER ON SCHEMA::dbo TO SomeGuy;
GRANT DELETE ON SCHEMA::dbo TO SomeGuy;
*/

How to update/replace or remove an email address from all SSRS subscriptions with T-SQL

Updating/replacing or removing an email address from SSRS subscriptions manually is far too time consuming and tedious. Use the below script instead to either update/replace an email address with a new one across all subscriptions or remove the email address from all subscriptions.

To exclude subscriptions, i.e. keep the email address active for a particular subscription, find the subscription Id for that subscription and include it in the WHERE clause. Remember to uncomment that line in order for the clause to be active.

If you’re worried about messing anything up then back up the table before running the script!

Create backup:

SELECT *
INTO [dbo].[Subscriptions_bk]
FROM [dbo].[Subscriptions]

Update/replace or remove an email address:

/*
To replace an email address with another email address:
Find and replace the following email addresses (Ctrl+H) with the new email address*/
/*
Email address to update/replace:
replaceSomeGuy@someCompany.com

Email address replacement:
newGuy@someCompany.com
*/
UPDATE [dbo].[Subscriptions]
SET ExtensionSettings = REPLACE(CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), ExtensionSettings), 'replaceSomeGuy@someCompany.com', 'newGuy@someCompany.com')
WHERE CHARINDEX('replaceSomeGuy@someCompany.com', ExtensionSettings) <> 0
--AND SubscriptionID NOT IN ('FindTheSubscriptionId')
;

/*
To remove an email address:
NOTE:Run both of the following scripts as an email address may or may not end with ";"

Find and replace the following email address (Ctrl+H)
*/
/*
Email address to remove
removeSomeGuy@otherCompany.com
*/
UPDATE [dbo].[Subscriptions]
SET ExtensionSettings = REPLACE(CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), ExtensionSettings), 'removeSomeGuy@otherCompany.com;', '')
WHERE CHARINDEX('removeSomeGuy@otherCompany.com;', ExtensionSettings) <> 0
--AND SubscriptionID NOT IN ('FindTheSubscriptionId')
;


UPDATE [dbo].[Subscriptions]
SET ExtensionSettings = REPLACE(CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), ExtensionSettings), 'removeSomeGuy@otherCompany.com', '')
WHERE CHARINDEX('removeSomeGuy@otherCompany.com', ExtensionSettings) <> 0
--AND SubscriptionID NOT IN ('FindTheSubscriptionId')
;

How to fix a date field with a format of dd/MM/yy or dd-MM-yy with a Azure Data Factory expression

Some systems never heard of Y2K.

Many programs in operation today, terrible programs written by lazy developers, still represent four-digit years with only the final two digits, making the year 2000 indistinguishable from 1900.

If you’re consuming data from a source system using an incomplete date format, and you’re doing your job properly, you’ll want to correct for that.

Below is an ADF expression example that will correct date field values that relate to the year 2000 onward by prefixing 20 to the year, e.g. 21 becomes 2021.

iif(
    like(YOUR_DATE_FIELD, "%-%")==true()
    , toDate(concat(left(CHAR_TRX_DATE, 5), '-20', right(CHAR_TRX_DATE, 2)), 'dd-MM-yyyy')
    , toDate(concat(left(CHAR_TRX_DATE, 5), '/20', right(CHAR_TRX_DATE, 2)), 'dd/MM/yyyy')
	)

How to fix an Azure Data Factory Pull Request Merge Conflict

Typically most pipeline development use cases can be handled directly within Data Factory through the Azure Web Portal. However where the line can get blurred sometimes between working in the cloud and working locally is with DevOps GIT.

If a GIT based deployment gets tangled there is an expectation you will be able to work through the desktop interface for GIT or worse fall back to using command line.

This is necessary because before a GIT pull request can complete, any conflicts with the target branch must be resolved and this usually involves issuing a few commands to put the matter right. The options for resolving conflicts through the web portal by default are limited to nonexistent which is at odds with the very high level, low code approach of developing pipelines in Data Factory.

Luckily if a merge conflict occurs there is an extension you can try.

https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=ms-devlabs.conflicts-tab

A conflict might occur because the master branch is no longer in sync with the development branch for example i.e. the master branch was changed after a development branch was created from it. When a pull request is created this may throw a merge conflict error blocking the merge from proceeding. Without resorting to code the extension above will allow you to choose between the source and target branch and specify which has the correct file version.

How to write T-SQL Geography data to a table

Below is some example code for writing the SQL Server geography data type to a table. Note by default geography data is stored in a binary format but it can be converted to a string to make it human readable.

Note: Pass in Longitude and Latitude values in that order.

/*Demo of geo data*/
DECLARE @g GEOGRAPHY;

SET @g = GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(53.578741 -6.611670)', 4326);

/*Geography data is in binary format*/
SELECT @g AS 'GeoBinaryFormat';

/*Convert binary data to a string*/
SELECT @g.ToString() AS 'ConvertingDataToString';


/*Inserting geo data into Table*/
CREATE TABLE #GeoTest ([CoordinateLocation] [geography] NULL);

INSERT INTO #GeoTest (CoordinateLocation)
SELECT GEOGRAPHY::STPointFromText('POINT(53.578741 -6.611670)', 4326);

SELECT *
FROM #GeoTest;

DROP TABLE #GeoTest;