Tag Archives: structure

How to map the table structure of all Databases in a SQL Server Instance

Below is a T-SQL script that will return the following fields for each table from each database located in a SQL Server Instance:

  • ServerName
  • DatabaseName
  • SchemaName
  • TableName
  • ColumnName
  • KeyType

The output is provided in a table format with these additional formatted lines of text which can be used as queries or as part of queries.

  • A Select table query
  • A Select column query
  • Each column bracketed
  • Each table and column bracketed

This query is especially useful from a reporting perspective for a DBA or SQL developer unfamiliar with the structure of the database they are querying. The table returned by the query can be exported to excel. Using excels filter option applied to the columns of the table makes finding and selecting specific tables and columns very easy.

This process can be repeated for every database server used by the business to generate a single mapped servers master excel file allowing the user to find any table or column available to the organization quickly.

Applying some colour coding like below adds to the ease of use.

Image of excel file with mapped database server structure

How to use:

Simply open SQL Server management studio and from object explorer right click on the server name and select new query. This will open a window set to the master database of the server. Copy and paste the SQL below into this SQL Server window and execute. When the query is finished you will have created the table above.

/*
SCRIPT UPDATED
20180316
*/

USE [master]
GO

/*DROP TEMP TABLES IF THEY EXIST*/
IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#DatabaseList') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #DatabaseList;

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#TableStructure') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #TableStructure;

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#ErrorTable') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #ErrorTable;

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#MappedServer') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #MappedServer;

DECLARE @ServerName AS SYSNAME

SET @ServerName = @@SERVERNAME

CREATE TABLE #DatabaseList (
	Id INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1, 1) PRIMARY KEY
	,ServerName SYSNAME
	,DbName SYSNAME
	);

CREATE TABLE [#TableStructure] (
	[DbName] SYSNAME
	,[SchemaName] SYSNAME
	,[TableName] SYSNAME
	,[ColumnName] SYSNAME
	,[KeyType] CHAR(7)
	) ON [PRIMARY];

/*THE ERROR TABLE WILL STORE THE DYNAMIC SQL THAT DID NOT WORK*/
CREATE TABLE [#ErrorTable] ([SqlCommand] VARCHAR(MAX)) ON [PRIMARY];

/*
A LIST OF DISTINCT DATABASE NAMES IS CREATED
THESE TWO COLUMNS ARE STORED IN THE #DatabaseList TEMP TABLE
THIS TABLE IS USED IN A FOR LOOP TO GET EACH DATABASE NAME
*/
INSERT INTO #DatabaseList (
	ServerName
	,DbName
	)
SELECT @ServerName
	,NAME AS DbName
FROM master.dbo.sysdatabases WITH (NOLOCK)
WHERE NAME <> 'tempdb'
ORDER BY NAME ASC

/*VARIABLES ARE DECLARED FOR USE IN THE FOLLOWING FOR LOOP*/
DECLARE @sqlCommand AS VARCHAR(MAX)
DECLARE @DbName AS SYSNAME
DECLARE @i AS INT
DECLARE @z AS INT

SET @i = 1
SET @z = (
		SELECT COUNT(*) + 1
		FROM #DatabaseList
		)

/*WHILE 1 IS LESS THAN THE NUMBER OF DATABASE NAMES IN #DatabaseList*/
WHILE @i < @z
BEGIN
	/*GET NEW DATABASE NAME*/
	SET @DbName = (
			SELECT [DbName]
			FROM #DatabaseList
			WHERE Id = @i
			)
	/*CREATE DYNAMIC SQL TO GET EACH TABLE NAME AND COLUMN NAME FROM EACH DATABASE*/
	SET @sqlCommand = 'USE [' + @DbName + '];' + '

INSERT INTO [#TableStructure]
SELECT DISTINCT' + '''' + @DbName + '''' + ' AS DbName
	,SCHEMA_NAME(SCHEMA_ID) AS SchemaName
	,T.NAME AS TableName	
	,C.NAME AS ColumnName
	,CASE 
		WHEN OBJECTPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID(iskcu.CONSTRAINT_NAME), ''IsPrimaryKey'') = 1 
			THEN ''Primary'' 
		WHEN OBJECTPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID(iskcu.CONSTRAINT_NAME), ''IsForeignKey'') = 1 
			THEN ''Foreign''
		ELSE NULL 
		END AS ''KeyType''
FROM SYS.TABLES AS t WITH (NOLOCK)
INNER JOIN SYS.COLUMNS C ON T.OBJECT_ID = C.OBJECT_ID
LEFT JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE AS iskcu WITH (NOLOCK) 
ON SCHEMA_NAME(SCHEMA_ID) = iskcu.TABLE_SCHEMA 
	AND T.NAME = iskcu.TABLE_NAME
	AND C.NAME = iskcu.COLUMN_NAME
ORDER BY SchemaName ASC
	,TableName ASC
	,ColumnName ASC;
';

	/*ERROR HANDLING*/
	BEGIN TRY
		EXEC (@sqlCommand)
	END TRY

	BEGIN CATCH
		INSERT INTO #ErrorTable
		SELECT (@sqlCommand)
	END CATCH

	SET @i = @i + 1
END

/*
JOIN THE TEMP TABLES TOGETHER TO CREATE A MAPPED STRUCTURE OF THE SERVER
ADDITIONAL FIELDS ARE ADDED TO MAKE SELECTING TABLES AND FIELDS EASIER
*/
SELECT DISTINCT @@SERVERNAME AS ServerName
	,DL.DbName
	,TS.SchemaName
	,TS.TableName
	,TS.ColumnName
	,TS.[KeyType]
	,',' + QUOTENAME(TS.ColumnName) AS BracketedColumn
	,',' + QUOTENAME(TS.TableName) + '.' + QUOTENAME(TS.ColumnName) AS BracketedTableAndColumn
	,'SELECT * FROM ' + QUOTENAME(DL.DbName) + '.' + QUOTENAME(TS.SchemaName) + '.' + QUOTENAME(TS.TableName) + '--WHERE --GROUP BY --HAVING --ORDER BY' AS [SelectTable]
	,'SELECT ' + QUOTENAME(TS.TableName) + '.' + QUOTENAME(TS.ColumnName) + ' FROM ' + QUOTENAME(DL.DbName) + '.' + QUOTENAME(TS.SchemaName) + '.' + QUOTENAME(TS.TableName) + '--WHERE --GROUP BY --HAVING --ORDER BY' AS [SelectColumn]
INTO #MappedServer
FROM [#DatabaseList] AS DL
INNER JOIN [#TableStructure] AS TS ON DL.DbName = TS.DbName
ORDER BY DL.DbName ASC
	,TS.SchemaName ASC
	,TS.TableName ASC
	,TS.ColumnName ASC

/*
HOUSE KEEPING
*/
IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#DatabaseList') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #DatabaseList;

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#TableStructure') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #TableStructure;

SELECT *
FROM #ErrorTable;

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#ErrorTable') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #ErrorTable;

/*
THE DATA RETURNED CAN NOW BE EXPORTED TO EXCEL
USING A FILTERED SEARCH WILL NOW MAKE FINDING FIELDS A VERY EASY PROCESS
*/
SELECT ServerName
	,DbName
	,SchemaName
	,TableName
	,ColumnName
	,KeyType
	,BracketedColumn
	,BracketedTableAndColumn
	,SelectColumn
	,SelectTable
FROM #MappedServer
ORDER BY DbName ASC
	,SchemaName ASC
	,TableName ASC
	,ColumnName ASC;